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The Advanced Bioeconomy: State of the Industry 2019

Biofuels Digest - Thu, 04/11/2019 - 1:23pm

This 2019 State of the Industry overview was presented at ABLC 2019 in Washington, DC, by the Digest team.


In any discussion of decarbonizing transport, we start with the bioeconomy itself. It’s an unfamiliar term to many — some people think it’s a fast-growing but small segment, some think of it as a sleeping giant.

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Global Bioenergies receives payment for converting sugar from wheat straw into bio-isobutene

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:32pm

In France, Global Bioenergies received a payment of EUR2.2 million for the OPTISOCHEM project supported by the Bio-Based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI-JU) the public-private sector partnership between the European Union and the Bio-Based Industries Consortium (BIC) under the European Horizon 2020 program.

Global Bioenergies has successfully converted sugars from wheat straw into bio-isobutene at demo plant scale: Clariant, a partner on the supply side of the consortium, has used its Sunliquid® technology to produce sugar-rich hydrolysates from wheat straw, which were then converted into isobutene in Global Bioenergies’ demo plant located in Leuna, Germany. This isobutene is then itself dedicated to be converted by chemistry specialist INEOS, also a member of the OPTISOCHEM project, into polymers and oligomers that can be used in any number of high-performance applications, particularly in cosmetics.

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Ireland and UK could become key markets for US-produced DDGS

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:31pm

In Washington, the U.S. Grains Council (USGC) is preparing to help buyers and end-users in Ireland and the United Kingdom learn how dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) can help meet their feed demand needs while adjusting to market conditions and a new trade environment.

Ireland is a consistent buyer of U.S. DDGS, utilizing just under 400,000 metric tons in 2018. Experienced buyers and end-users buy U.S. DDGS to feed Ireland’s ruminants, including the large dairy and sheep industries.

The USGC team wanted to determine if other markets are under-utilizing the feed ingredient. After visiting with IGFA and area importers, the team determined the swine industry is not using DDGS, providing opportunities for the Council to answer questions related to nutrition and encouraging inclusion of the U.S. feed ingredient in rations. New demand from the Irish swine sector could mean up to 350,000 tons in additional exports of U.S. DDGS.

Ireland will be heavily affected by the Brexit deal as the only country that shares a land barrier with the United Kingdom. The two countries currently have uninhibited trade routes; agricultural products from Ireland commonly go from barge or ferry in Dublin over to Liverpool and then are trucked through the Chunnel under the English Channel for distribution to the rest of Europe. Routing goods by boat to avoid the United Kingdom will increase transit time and costs.

Across the pond, the United Kingdom is not a regular buyer of U.S. DDGS, but the country did hit a five-year high for imports in 2018 at 275,000 tons. English end-users do use wheat-based DDGS from local ethanol plants, but two of those ethanol plants closed in 2018. While one plant has since reopened, a demand gap of 500,000 to 600,000 tons of DDGS presents an opportunity for U.S. exports, especially as a drought in Europe has pushed prices for local alternative local feedstocks higher.

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Thailand working to ensure trucks can run on B20 when mandate rolls out

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:30pm

In Thailand, the Bangkok Post newspaper reports that the government is working with truck manufacturers to ensure that when the B20 mandate is implemented there won’t be issues with warranties. Toyota has confirmed that its Hilux and Fortuner models are already compliant with the fuel, and the costs to run the top of the line Hilux models will drop using B20. Isuzu trucks are also likely compatible but need to make sure filters are checked and oil is changed before switching over to B20 that will be available at nearly 160 fueling stations around the country.

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Ethanol stocks fall to lowest level in 2019

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:29pm

In Washington, DTN reports that Energy Information Administration data shows ethanol stocks have fallen nationwide to their lowest level in 2019 so far at 23.2 million barrels, down 800,000 barrels from the week prior. Ethanol production did tick back up, however, passing 1 million barrels per day for the first time since Midwest floods started shutting down production. East and West Coast regions as well as the Midwest saw stocks decrease as consumption continues on the coasts without additional supplies and product begins to move out of the Midwest region following the floods.

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Colombia joins Malaysia and Indonesia on crusade to save palm oil from EU discrimination

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:28pm

In Belgium, the New Straits Times newspaper reports that Colombia has officially joined Malaysia and Indonesia in calling for the European Union to drop its discriminatory treatment of palm oil for biodiesel production. About 95% of the world’s palm oil is produced by the three countries. The countries claim that the ILUC risk policy under the EU’s Renewable Energy Directive II is scientifically flawed and discriminates against palm oil in favor of soy oil and rapeseed oil feedstocks.

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Celignis creates novel methodology for biomass analysis

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:27pm

In Belgium, Celignis’s founder discovered that although feedstock composition was a critical factor for the success of biomass transformation processes, precise data was missing for a wide range of feedstocks. To address this issue, and avoid future problems in conversion processes, companies used to subcontract laboratories to chemically analyze biomass samples. This process is time consuming and expensive: taking approximately two weeks per sample, and costing hundreds of euros. Looking for solutions to improve this process, Celignis created a novel methodology for biomass analysis, modelling samples’ composition according to the results of a near infrared spectroscopy analysis. Their method uses infrared light to determine the presence and quantity of important constituents in biomass materials. Following the analysis of hundreds of samples of different feedstocks across the world, Celignis developed unique algorithms to predict with high accuracy and precision the composition of biomass samples. In that way, up to 13 different parameters, including type and amount of sugars, lignin and ash, can be analyzed for various types of biomass. And this in only one day, for less than a hundred euros per sample.

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MIT researchers develop flex-fuel hybrid trucks

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:26pm

In Massachusetts, heavy-duty trucks, such as the 18-wheelers that transport many of the world’s goods from farm or factory to market, are virtually all powered by diesel engines. They account for a significant portion of worldwide greenhouse gas emissions, but little has been done so far to curb their climate-change-inducing exhaust.

Now, researchers at MIT have devised a new way of powering these trucks that could drastically curb pollution, increase efficiency, and reduce or even eliminate their net greenhouse gas emissions.

The concept involves using a plug-in hybrid engine system, in which the truck would be primarily powered by batteries, but with a spark ignition engine (instead of a diesel engine). That engine, which would allow the trucks to conveniently travel the same distances as today’s conventional diesel trucks, would be a flex-fuel model that could run on pure gasoline, pure alcohol, or blends of these fuels.

While the ultimate goal would be to power trucks entirely with batteries, the researchers say, this flex-fuel hybrid option could provide a way for such trucks to gain early entry into the marketplace by overcoming concerns about limited range, cost, or the need for excessive battery weight to achieve longer range.

The new concept was developed by MIT Energy Initiative and Plasma Fusion and Science Center research scientist Daniel Cohn and principal research engineer Leslie Bromberg, who are presenting it at the annual SAE International conference on April 11.

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Costa Rica drops E8 plans less than a week after announcing them

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:25pm

In Costa Rica, the state-owned oil refinery RECOPE’s plan to introduce E8 by the end of May was postponed just five days after its announcement and purchase contracts to buy the required ethanol have been voided by constitutional court. Though discussions about an ethanol blend may begin again next year, in the meantime work will be done to sensitize different stakeholders about ethanol blending in gasoline and some voluntary blending may be seen as well.

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Thermochemical Processes for Waste Recycling: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to KIT

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:18pm

Karlsruhe Institute of Technologyith has more than 9,000 employees and an annual budget of about EUR 785 million, KIT is one of the biggest research and education institutions worldwide and has the potential of reaching a top position in selected research areas on an international level. The objective is to turn KIT into an institution of top research, excellent scientific education, and a prominent location of academic life, life-long learning, comprehensive advanced training, unrestricted exchange of know-how, and sustainable innovation culture.

Dieter Stapf, Helmut Seifert, and Manuela Wexler, xxxx, gave this illuminating overview of xxxxx and more, at ABLC Global 2018 in San Francisco

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The Competitive Edge: AVA Biochem AG

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 04/10/2019 - 5:12pm
AVA Biochem AG

Q: What was the reason for founding your organization – what was the open niche you saw that could be addressed with a new product or service? What was the problem, or gap, or opportunity?

5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, CAS 67-47-0) derived from sugars is the link between biomass and furan-based chemicals. With its various functional groups and associated reaction sites, this small molecule opens the door to a wide range of chemical modifications, which makes 5-HMF a versatile renewable building block.

5-HMF is a building block for many chemicals such as FDCA/FDME which will be used for PEF and other bioplasics. In addition, 5-HMF is able to replace the toxic and carcinogenic formaldehyde in resins. 5-HMF is also used as natural flavour and API.

Q: Tell us about your organization. What do you do?

We are the biggest producer of 5-HMF, a building block for many chemicals such as FDCA/FDME which will be used for PEF and other bioplastics.

The AVA Process is the most economical process forming 5-HMF is large scale production

AVA has 20 experts headquartered in Zug/Switzerland with a full demonstration plant in Muttenz/Basel.

Q: What stage of development are you?

AVA Biochem runs a small industrial scale demonstration plant in Muttenz (Switzerland) where 5-HMF is produced in different forms (aqueous solution and crystals). We are currently planning the next scale production plant at a capacity of 5’000-10’000 t/y which will allow us to offer 5-HMF in aqueous solution at economical viable prices.

Q: What do your technologies, products or services do and accomplish – how does it (they) work, who is it (they) aimed for?

Our innovative, water-based process converts renewable feedstocks to valuable bio-based chemical building blocks. These non-toxic building blocks can replace harmful formaldehyde in many applications and serve as precursors of a variety of bio-based high-performance polymers.

Due to the efficient use of renewable feedstocks, AVA Biochem’s technology contributes to a circular economy at a significantly reduced carbon footprint.

Q: Competitively, what gives your technology, product or service set an edge in cost or performance, sustainability, or any other aspect, that makes it stand out from the crowd, In short, what makes it transformative?

Our technology platform is revolutionary in allowing commercially viable levels of production of 5-HMF.

Q: What are the 3 top milestones you have accomplished in the past 3 years?

  1. Standardization and freeze of process. Proof of reproducibility
  2. Strengthen of team with industrial and technological know-how
  3. Setup of diverse collaborations (e.g. joint development agreements) with leading companies covering the whole value chain

Q: What are the 3 top milestones you will accomplish in the next 3 years?

  1. Reach certification and supply of 5-HMF replacing Formaldehyde in a resin of a large public company.
  2. Basic Design for a 5kta plant.
  3. Building this plant.


  1. Where can I learn more about AVA Biochem AG?

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Gevo signs construction license agreement with Praj for sugary-based isobutanol

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 7:14pm

In Colorado, Gevo, Inc. announced that it has signed a binding, definitive Construction License Agreement with Praj Industries Ltd., dated April 4, 2019, to commercialize the production of renewable isobutanol using sugary-based feedstocks, such as juice, syrup and molasses made of sugarcane and sugar beets (the “Construction License Agreement”).  Pursuant to the Construction License Agreement, Praj will provide engineering procurement and construction services to certain third party customers using a process design package that incorporates Gevo’s proprietary isobutanol biocatalyst and is designed for use with sugary-based feedstocks (the “PDP”).  The PDP is jointly owned by Gevo and Praj.  Gevo has granted a license to Praj that would allow Praj to provide such services to certain third party customers.

In addition, Gevo also signed a Memorandum of Understanding (“MOU”) with Praj Industries Ltd. to commercialize Gevo’s renewable hydrocarbons products in India, including Gevo’s renewable alcohol-to-jet fuel (“ATJ”) and renewable isooctane, derived from Gevo’s renewable isobutanol.  The MOU contemplates two phases.  In phase one, Praj will implement a pilot plant in India for the purpose of introducing Gevo’s technology to potential customers.  Following phase one, Praj and Gevo expect to enter into a commercial license agreement for the production of renewable hydrocarbons. Together, Gevo and Praj expect to use a combination of their respective technologies for the conversion of sugars to renewable hydrocarbon products.

“Praj is a company that shares our vision of the utilization of renewable resources and renewable energy to decarbonize transportation fuels,” said Patrick R. Gruber, Chief Executive Officer of Gevo. “India already has a biofuel mandate primarily focused on ethanol.  With Gevo’s technology and Praj’s execution, ethanol can become substituted with isobutanol and drop-in gasoline.  Gevo expects to leverage Praj’s Enfinity technology to produce second generation drop-in hydrocarbons utilizing Gevo’s existing technology that has already been proven.  We expect to scale up quickly and be ready for the Indian market as early as 2020.”
Dr. Gruber continued, “We have a longstanding partnership with Praj and this strengthening of our businesses helps us both continue with our shared vision of low-carbon fuels made from sugars in high yields. These types of visions can help benefit the world.”

Pramod Chaudhari, Executive Chairman of Praj, added, “the addition of  isobutanol technology to Praj’s diverse product portfolio is a step in our endeavor towards smart biorefineries that facilitate sustainable decarbonization.  This solution can be offered both as a ‘bolt-on’ to an existing ethanol plant or as a Greenfield plant. We value our partnership with Gevo and believe that this technology will help the aviation industry fulfill its obligation of Green House Gas (GHG) reduction.”

The Construction License Agreement is the product of the Joint Development Agreement and Development License Agreement that Gevo and Praj entered into in November 2015.  Pursuant to those agreements, Praj adapted Gevo’s technology to use sugar cane and molasses feedstocks. Praj is a global leader in providing engineering, procurement and construction, or EPC, services to the ethanol industry.  The Construction License Agreement will allow Praj to leverage its extensive customer base to identify customers interested in licensing Gevo’s technology to produce isobutanol utilizing the PDP.  Gevo’s partnership with Praj provides Gevo with access to markets outside of North America that utilize sugar-based feedstocks not prevalent in North America, particularly in regions such as India, Southeast Asia, Australia, South America and even parts of Europe where sugar beets are processed.

In connection with the Construction License Agreement, Gevo and Praj have also entered into a new Joint Development Agreement and a new Development License Agreement, dated April 4, 2019, to continue their joint development efforts to produce isobutanol using sugarcane juice, sugarcane syrup, sugarcane molasses, sugar beet juice, sugar beet syrup, sugar beet molasses, sugar beet pulp, cassava, rice, wheat, sorghum, bagasse, rice straw, wheat straw, corn stover, cotton stalk and empty fruit bunches (collectively, the “Development Agreements”).  In particular, Gevo and Praj are nearing the completion of work to develop a process design package to use agricultural residues, such as empty fruit bunches, wheat straw, rice straw or corn stover, to produce isobutanol.  These second generation biomass feedstocks are the lowest cost feedstocks in some markets and have the additional benefit of having a very low carbon footprint.  The use of agricultural residues as a feedstock to produce isobutanol should provide Gevo feedstock optionality in markets that are targeting decarbonization from second generation forms of biomass.

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Canada’s Greenfield Global looks to set up ethanol production in Ireland

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 7:13pm

In Ireland, Greenfield Global Inc., Canada’s largest producer of alcohol and fuel ethanol, and one of the largest alcohols and solvents companies in North America, announced plans to establish a new EU manufacturing headquarters in Portlaoise, Ireland.

The project is supported by the Irish Government through IDA Ireland and is expected to create 75 high-quality jobs over the next five years. The new roles will be in a range of operations; production, quality, supply chain, and sales functions.

Greenfield, which has its headquarters in Toronto, Canada, has operations in 12 locations across North America. The company’s extensive portfolio of products is trusted by hundreds of customers in pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, life science, personal care, and food, flavor and fragrance markets in over 50 countries.

The new 3,800 sq. meter manufacturing HQ in Portlaoise will be constructed on the IDA Ireland Business and Technology Park and is expected to be operational in Q2, 2020. An estimated 100 jobs are expected to be created during the construction and fit-out phase of the project.

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BASF to expand sodium methylate production in Brazil to support biodiesel industry

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 7:12pm

In Brazil, BASF will increase the production capacity for its Sodium Methylate plant in Guaratinguetá, Brazil. The nameplate capacity will increase by 30%, from currently 60,000 metric tons to 80,000 metric tons. The new capacity will come onstream in 2020.

Sodium Methylate is an efficient and reliable catalyst that provides a sustainable solution for the production and use of Biodiesel, meeting the requirements of engine manufacturers for high-quality fuels and lower emissions. Sodium methylate supports higher yields and low preparation cost for Biodiesel.

With this expansion, BASF will support the growth of its Sodium Methylate customers. Brazil is an important and significant market for Biodiesel and corresponding catalysts. Customers’ demands, and requirements have been evolving to accomplish the environmental and economic strategy of the country, supporting the local agriculture and biofuels production.

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Indonesia’s president tells oil palm farmers to diversify towards higher value crops

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 7:11pm

In Indonesia, the Jakarta Post newspaper reports that the president has told oil palm farmers to look at alternative crops such as durian due to the fruit’s better prospects in the market compared to palm oil. Currently the country produces around 46 million metric tons of palm oil annually, making Indonesia the largest producer in the world. With countries in Europe turning against palm oil for biodiesel production due to it allegedly poor environmental credentials, demand is expected to drop so the president suggested farmers get out early.

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Ho Chi Minh City sees E5 soar to 40% market share

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 7:10pm

In Vietnam, local press reports that with the government setting the price of 5% ethanol blended gasoline below the price of standard 95 octane gasoline, market share has jumped to 40% in Ho Chi Minh City from a previous 30%. Car owners are still slow to pick up on the use of the E5 blend but trucks, motos, taxis and other vehicles classes have jumped on the cheaper fuel. Consumption in the city of E5 is about 2,500 cu m per day.

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Paraguayan biodiesel industry worried rush to B15 fueled by Argentina

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 7:09pm

In Paraguay, Argentina’s La Nación newspaper reports that the country’s house of representatives is looking to boost biodiesel blending to 15% by 2021 from the current 2% now but the local industry is slamming the move as one pushed by Argentina in an effort to drive open a new market. The domestic biodiesel industry wants to see a slower ramp up so it can keep up with supply rather than having to open its market to its more powerful neighbor, potentially keeping them from ever being able to ramp up and compete.

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Texas A&M gets funding for short courses from Malaysian Palm Oil Board

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 7:08pm

In Texas, Texas A&M’s head of the Fats and Oils Program at the Process Engineering Research and Development Center (PERDC), has received a grant from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board to fund several semesters of teaching and short courses about the significance of dietary oils and fats as essential sources of energy. Similar programs exist at other universities, but PERDC’s labs and pilot plants provide a truly hands-on experience that short course attendees and students will be hard-pressed to find elsewhere.

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Agriculture secretary sees progress with China on ethanol tariffs

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 7:07pm

In Washington, Reuters reports that the agriculture secretary says tariff negotiations with China over ethanol trade are going well but still no indications of a deal will finally be reached or at what level the Chinese could cut the import tariffs too. He also told reporters that he had spoken with the administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency about ensuring that the process to approve hardship waivers for small oil refiners was more tightly controlled.

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Cap and Trade, RINs, and the Risks of the Future

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 04/09/2019 - 6:59pm

Mike Newman is a Director of Parhelion Underwriting

Special to The Digest

The best climate policy – environmentally and economically – limits emissions and puts a price on them. Cap and trade is one way to do both. It’s a system designed to reduce pollution in our atmosphere. The cap on greenhouse gas emissions that drive global warming is a firm limit on pollution. The cap gets stricter over time. The trade part is a market for companies to buy and sell allowances that let them emit only a certain amount, as supply and demand set the price. Trading gives companies an incentive to save money by cutting emissions in the most cost-effective ways. Companies that cut their pollution faster can sell allowances to companies that pollute more, or “bank” them for future use. This market – the “trade” part of cap and trade – gives companies flexibility. It increases the pool of available capital to make reductions, encourages companies to cut pollution faster and rewards innovation.

In the European Union’s Emissions Trading System, capped emissions from stationary structures were 26 percent lower in 2016 than when the program started in 2005. In the United States, California’s climate policies have led to a steady decline of the state’s carbon dioxide pollution. The centerpiece is the cap-and-trade program and California’s emissions from sources subject to the cap declined 8.8 percent between the program’s launch in 2013 and 2016. Meanwhile, the state’s economy is thriving. Cap and trade makes even deeper cuts possible when countries cooperate, such as the United States and Canada. California and Quebec connected their systems in 2014, building a strong market that shows great potential.

Trading in the climate finance market – the systems designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions – sometimes create areas of uncertainty. The risk of invalidation of credits worry market participants – but insurance risk capital can be used to mitigate these concerns and in fact already works successfully in several markets. One example of this is in the California Cap-and-Trade program where “buyer liability” has created a price differential between carbon offsets depending on the level of risk associated with them. By removing this risk from both offset buyers (typically refineries and utilities) and sellers (project developers), insurance adds certainty and therefore liquidity to the market because it’s a guarantee with investment-grade A+ security.

Starting in January, similar insurance coverage is offered to RIN buyers and sellers. “Platinum-RIN” is a risk-free credit that can be bought by any market participants and applied to any RIN type. It can complement QRINs by removing the residual risk or it can wrap non-Q RINs. It also can remove the need for expensive in-house procurement protocols.

The highly publicized fraud cases have created a continued wariness in the RIN market that — combined with EPA’s “buyer beware” approach which holds obligated parties liable for invalid credits — has led some credit buyers to deal only with long-standing and trusted sellers. And that has worked to reduce liquidity in RINs trading and put smaller renewable fuel producers at a disadvantage.

Insurance is a solution that can allow market participants to buy RINs free of any fraud and invalidation risk. And that should help inject more liquidity into RIN trade because if you are holding one of those credits and it’s invalidated, your investment is worthless, and worse still it exposes the compliance entity to civil fines and penalties. Insurance can take that risk away. In the RINs market many refiners simply don’t want to do business with smaller biofuel producers without pretty solid assurances that the credits are valid.

While EPA has attempted to address the issue of bogus RINs in 2014 when it established its Quality Assurance Program (QAP), which allows for third-party validation of credits, the market use of the program has been limited, because the process can be expensive and because it does not fully remove the risk. As a result, many parties have opted instead to trade only with well-known parties, implement their own verification programs or buy only ethanol RINs. But managing an in-house verification program requires significant management time and expertise. Further, it can enable biofuel producers to increase the number of buyers to whom they can sell and permit marketers that assume RIN invalidation risk in sales contracts to offer clear title. For obligated parties like refiners, the insurance can support their due diligence program — a “belt and braces” approach — at a relatively small additional expense.

The cost of the insurance varies depending on the category of RIN, for example 2% of the credit value for D6 RINs (1.5% for Q-D6) and as much as 4% for a D4 RIN (2% for a Q-D4). All of EPA’s documented cases of RINs fraud have involved D4 or biomass-based diesel credits.

In addition, insurance for California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) program can also be purchased, although the extent of liability for invalidated credits is still “fuzzy.” But that may be changing. The California Air Resources Board didn’t want to be seen coming out of the gate with a punitive LCFS program, but that is starting to tighten up now as regulatory changes made last year started to bring more clarity to who is liable for bad credits.

So, although risks often act as barriers to investment in innovative changes in commerce, it takes the huge pool of global insurance and reinsurance capital that has traditionally taken the risks that other forms of capital (debt and equity) can’t or won’t take, to ensure liquidity in new markets and to finance the risks of the future.

Mike Newman is a Director of Parhelion Underwriting, a risk finance company specializing in risks impacting investment in clean energy and climate finance markets.


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