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Danish research project looks at CO2 capture of biomass-fired CHP plants

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 07/03/2019 - 6:28pm

In Denmark, a new research project carried out by Ramboll, GEUS, DTU and SINTEF is studying the feasibility of using CO2 capture at Danish biomass-fired combined heat and power plants. A techno-economic study of the feasibility of a future integrated CO2 neutral energy system, where the subsurface is utilized for thermal energy supply and storage, as well as temporary CO2 storage is being performed as part of a research project carried out by Ramboll, GEUS, DTU and SINTEF. The study is supported by the Danish energy technology development and demonstration research program EUDP.

The study analyses a generic bio-plant retrofitted with a CO2 capture. The generic bio-plant is benchmarked against a reference power plant, the biomass-fired Avedøre 1 CHP plant, located in the outskirts of Copenhagen. The plant has a capacity of 640 MWth, with net electric power output of 219 MWel and district heating production of 352 MWth at full-load conditions. The plant operates with 100% wood pellets. The Avedøre plant is considered representative of a state-of-the-art power plant that has been converted from operating with coal to biomass.

In the modelling work, the bio-plant is retrofitted with so-called Monoethanolamine (MEA) capture technology, a well-known carbon capture technique of CO2 absorption by using amines. In the process, steam from the CHP production is used to regenerate the amine used to capture CO2. When leaving the capture plant, the CO2 is compressed to 110 bar, transported by pipeline 3 km towards northeast, and injected into a storage reservoir in 1300 meters depth. 30 years injection of 1 million tons/year of CO2 is feasible from one injection well. The transport and injection case is based on capture from Nordjyllandsværket CHP plant after possible conversion to biomass-firing.

The research results so far show that it is possible to recover a considerable amount of heat from the CO2 capture process to the DH system for use in the district heating system, significantly improving the thermal efficiency of the bio-plant and consequently reducing the cost of CO2 capture by roughly 30%, or from €77 to €52 per ton of CO2 captured.

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NBB Fair Trade Coalition slams Commerce’s review decision on Argentine biodiesel imports

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 07/03/2019 - 6:27pm

In Washington, the National Biodiesel Board’s (NBB) Fair Trade Coalition has criticized the U.S. Department of Commerce’s preliminary decision in a “changed circumstances” review of countervailing duties on biodiesel imports from Argentina. Commerce preliminarily found that Argentina’s recent changes to its export tax regime eliminated certain government subsidies provided to Argentina’s biodiesel producers. If these results are made final, Commerce would reduce the existing countervailing duty rates on Argentine biodiesel from their current average of 72% to 10%.

In a companion review of the antidumping duty order, Commerce did not propose to change the antidumping duty rates that are currently in effect, which average 75%. The reduced countervailing duty rates would be applied in addition to the existing antidumping rates, resulting in a total average rate of 85%.

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Raised & Rooted alt protein, African iron superfood, biological biocide, digital agronomic tools, CO2 munching microbe, and more: The Digest’s Top 10 Innovations for the week of July 4th

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 07/03/2019 - 6:01pm

In the U.S., it’s Independence Day and many folks are celebrating across the country, but it doesn’t mean the bioeconomy is taking a break. In fact, bioeconomy innovations, much like hamburgers and hot dogs across America, are getting hot, hot, hot! Here are the top innovations for the week of July 4th – from slow-release fertilizer that feeds crops while improving water quality to mushroom packaging.

In today’s Digest, Raised & Rooted alternative protein from Tyson Foods, African iron superfood, biological biocide, digital agronomic tools, CO2 munching microbe — these and more, ready for you now at The Digest online.

#1 Tyson jumps deeper into Alt Protein, launches Raised & Rooted Brand

In Arkansas, Tyson Foods introduced the company’s first plant-based and blended products, along with its new Raised & Rooted brand. The initiative makes Tyson Foods the largest U.S. meat producer to enter the growing alternative protein segment with its own products. The Raised & Rooted nuggets will launch through national retailers in late summer and the blended burgers this fall. The products have been developed by Tyson Foods’ innovation, culinary and consumer insights teams in Chicago and Northwest Arkansas.

The initial products under this new brand, which will launch with several major retail customers this year, include plant-based nuggets as well as blended burgers made with a combination of beef and plants. In addition, the company’s existing Aidells® brand has launched Aidells Whole Blends sausage and meatballs, made with chicken and plant-based ingredients.

Through Tyson Ventures, the company will continues its investment in start-up companies involved in alternative proteins. Current investments include mushroom-based protein producer Mycotechnology and cell-based meat producers Memphis Meats and Future Meat Technologies. Tyson Foods expects to introduce additional alternative protein products through multiple customers and sales channels. This includes products under the Raised & Rooted brand and across the company’s portfolio of iconic brands, as well as to foodservice operators.
More on the story, here.

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ABLC Wolves Devour 6 Technologies: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to The Wolfpack

Biofuels Digest - Wed, 07/03/2019 - 6:00pm

If 4th of July is making you hungry, we have the satisfying slides that will satiate your hunger for thoughts from renowned due diligence experts on the latest and hottest technologies. You won’t want to miss these slides, esp. if you missed ABLC’s Wolfpack this April.

Paul Bryan from Sandia National Labs, James Iademarco from Strategic Avalanche, Joel Stone from ConVergence, David Dodds from Dodds & Associates, Michele Rubino an independent consultant, all shared their praises and criticisms on 6 hot companies at ABLC. Check out these slides to get the details on the 6 companies – Modern Meadow’s leather and materials without the cow, Carbon Engineering’s carbon capture technology, Xyleco’s advanced products from biomass, Bolt Threads’ advanced materials and fabrics using biotech, Amyris’ specialty nutrition and cannabinoids, Ryze Renewables’ renewable diesel and jet technology and more

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CoBank report says ethanol margins likely to remain weak for rest of 2019

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 6:23pm

In Colorado, operating margins for ethanol producers will likely remain weak for the remainder of 2019 under the weight of abundant production. Declining corn production this year will also squeeze margins and some ethanol plants will be forced to shut down or idle their production due to high corn prices or insufficient supplies.

According to a new report from CoBank’s Knowledge Exchange Division, exports remain one area of optimism for ethanol producers, but that optimism is based on China’s plans to convert to E10 blend gasoline nationally by the end of 2020. In the meantime, domestic U.S. ethanol demand will likely be flat over the next two years.

Ethanol plants had expanded capacity after several years of positive margins. However, margins began sliding in the summer of 2018 and plants have struggled to remain profitable since then. With stocks expected to remain above 900 million gallons through the remainder of 2019, margins are expected remain low.

One potential growth area is E15, as this fuel blend containing 15% ethanol can now be sold year-round. Some retailers will need to invest in additional infrastructure to support E15 sales and will have to weigh the costs of new pumps, tanks or other equipment against the potential profits from offering E15.

Increased demand for ethanol due to E15 will be limited in the next three years as retailers make these investments and consumer acceptance builds. Longer-term, the E15 fuel market will be able to provide stronger support to ethanol plant margins.

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Greenbelt teams with dairy waste company to develop new bioproducts system

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 6:22pm

In California, Greenbelt Resources Corporation, the developer of an award-winning sustainable ECOsystem model that transforms food, beverage and agricultural industry wastes into revenue producing bioproducts, and New Age Renewable Energy, LLC. (NARE), an innovator in dairy waste processing projects, announced a technology collaboration agreement combining the NARE fermentation formulation with the efficiency of Greenbelt’s ECOsystem technology to provide a cost-effective solution for converting dairy processing wastes into bioproducts. The result is a low-energy-footprint and automated, modular cost-effective solution. The combined solution helps improve a dairy processor’s sustainability profile while also saving them money.

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Germany calling for globally-coordinated deforestation-free palm oil

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 6:21pm

In Germany, Xinhua news agency reports that the German government is calling for deforestation-free palm oil to be coordinated at a global level due to the fact that it has the highest yields compared to other vegetable oils and that the opportunity to expand in tropical areas is significant. The country wants palm oil that is environmentally friendly and respects local populations. Germany imported 700,000 metric tons of palm oil last year, down from 1.4 million tons in 2016.

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European chemical industry sees EU-Mercosur deal a boon for biochemistry

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 6:20pm

In Belgium, ICIS reports that the European chemicals industry group CEFIC says that it supports the newly-agreed EU-Mercosur trade deal because tariffs on 90% of European chemical exports to the five Latin American countries will drop, a move which it says will support the development of a European bio-based chemical industry. The new deal sees 450,000 metric tons of ethanol entering Europe duty-free for chemical use, primarily from Brazil, while another 200,000 tons will be for any use, including fuel.

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Maharashtra calls for 25% of cane diversion to ethanol

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 6:19pm

In India, the Indian Express reports that Maharashtra’s sugar commissioner has told sugar mills to divert 25% of cane production towards ethanol in an effort to reduce the sugar glut in the country and in the state in particular while support government policy that seeks to blend 10% ethanol when 5% was the highest ever achieved. The national government has been investing heavily in soft loans and other support mechanisms to encourage expansion of ethanol production.

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Beatrice biodiesel plant to be mothballed permanently

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 6:18pm

In Nebraska, local press reports that Flint Hills Resources has decided to permanently mothball the biodiesel plant in Beatrice because the prices for soybeans available to other biodiesel producers are so low that the facility that uses corn oil and waste grease will never be able to compete under any circumstances. The facility had a sad start in 2008 that wasn’t finished until Flint Hills took it over in a joint venture with Benefuel in 2016.

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CU Boulder researchers develop nanobio-hybrid organisms for plastics and fuels production

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 6:17pm

In Colorado, CU Boulder researchers have developed nanobio-hybrid organisms capable of using airborne carbon dioxide and nitrogen to produce a variety of plastics and fuels, a promising first step toward low-cost carbon sequestration and eco-friendly manufacturing for chemicals.

By using light-activated quantum dots to fire particular enzymes within microbial cells, the researchers were able to create “living factories” that eat harmful CO2 and convert it into useful products such as biodegradable plastic, gasoline, ammonia and biodiesel.

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Gasolinegate unmasks collusion between EPA and oil industry over three decades

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 6:16pm

In Washington, three decades of inaction, neglect, and collusion with the oil industry by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has masked the true emission impacts of gasoline and caused significant harm to the public, according to a new report

EPA’s headliner stories of the day questioning ethics and integrity are just the tip of the iceberg. The Gasolinegate report chronicles three decades of EPA collusion with the industry they are responsible for regulating, which resulted in harming the public they are sworn to protect. Emails obtained through the Freedom of Information Act provide a trail of deceit that led to a history of fake fuels and fake emissions tests, resulting in much greater risk to the public than reported.

Simply titled Gasolinegate, the report was produced by Famers Union Enterprises (FUE) and like Watergate, Tobaccogate, and Dieselgate, is about individuals subverting and ignoring the law or crossing the line of integrity and ethics, and covering it up, said Doug Sombke, Chairman of FUE. 

Despite dozens of reputable and peer reviewed studies confirming that ultrafine toxic particulates are one of the most serious public health threats in urban areas, among them pre-term births, IQ loss, and asthma, nothing has been done.  Congress has made a legislative finding of harm in Section 202(l) of the Clean Air Act which EPA and the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) is compelled to enforce.  Key findings of this report include the following:

Dieselgate was about the public health impact of 500,000 cars emitting more emissions than the public was told, and the cover up by Volkswagen by using on board computers as a “defeat device”.   Gasolinegate is about 263 million cars and light duty trucks emitting more than reported, particularly more toxic/carcinogenic emissions – for decades.

EPA and the Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) colluded with the oil industry (based on Freedom of Information Act emails) to create designer fake test fuels and altered emission testing models to serve as the “defeat devices” in Gasolinegate.

EPA is hiding the truth about the enormous economic and social costs of harmful gasoline emissions and lying to Congress and the American public.  Internal EPA documents prove that EPA simply ignores the most potent emissions caused by toxic gasoline aromatics which modern vehicles emissions control systems are incapable of capturing, potentially increasing health care costs by trillions of dollars. 

That is due to the fact that 90% of urban PM emissions come from mobile sources, not power plants, and more than 80% of mobile source PM emissions come from gasoline powered vehicles, not diesel.  In the U.S., more than 260 million light-duty vehicles combust 140 billion gallons each year of gasoline, 25 – 30% of which is comprised of some of the most potent carcinogenic substances known to mankind.  The toxic, carcinogenic emissions are invisible, but they are lethal as they by-pass the lungs and can directly enter the bloodstream.

However, EPA’s Office of Transportation and Air Quality (OTAQ) contends that since passage of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, its policies have reduced the most harmful mobile source emissions, including toxics like benzene and known Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), by 90%.  Gasolinegate proves that EPA is lying to the Congress and American public by saying they have the problem under control.

In a series of workshops in 2015, OTAQ was forced to admit that its models are defective as EPA scientists deliberately excluded 86% of the known Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from its emissions model, claiming that including these potent toxics would have been “outside the scope” of the model.

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Sustainable Aviation Fuel: The Digest’s 2019 Multi-Slide Guide to Airlines for America

Biofuels Digest - Tue, 07/02/2019 - 5:52pm

Airlines for America is an American trade association and lobbying group based in Washington, D.C. that represents the largest airlines and more than 90 percent of U.S. airline passenger and cargo traffic. A4A advocates on behalf of its members to shape crucial policies and measures that promote safety, security and a healthy U.S. airline industry. Annually, commercial aviation helps drive nearly $1.5 trillion in U.S. economic activity and more than 10 million U.S. jobs.

Nancy N. Young, VP Environmental Affairs of Airlines for America takes us on a flight around the world with SAF and its role in climate change, what aircraft operators need to do to deploy SAF, how SAF can help fill the gaps that are still left, and more

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Oh my! Dan’s back: AgCertain Industries acquires KemX Global

Biofuels Digest - Mon, 07/01/2019 - 7:51pm

For some time, many have been uncertain as to what direction former REG CEO Dan Oh would take in developing a new entry into the fast-growing bioeconomy, but now we can be certain, or rather, AgCertain.

News has filtered out of Iowa that Oh’s new company, AgCertain Industries has acquired KemX Global. AgCertain is now operating a certified glycerine and vegetable oil refining company located in Boone, Iowa and will heavily invest in the facility to increase its team, improve logistics capabilities, expand market reach, and broaden its product and service portfolio.

Interestingly, this is uber-clean stuff. Kosher certified, organic, non-GMO certified, sporting a Level 2 certification from the Safe Quality Food Institute, and minimizing the use of chemicals in the refining process.So, this is a step up from a crush facility, one that can work with multiple crush points to ensure a consistent, high-quality oil, and respond to the growing demand for premium oils from the food sector, and think pharma too. More on that in a moment.

Where is Boone exactly?

Head north and take a left at Ames, Iowa along Highway 30, and a few miles out of town is Boone, and the industrial park site on the north side of the rail lines. That’s where the production plant is and remains. Sales, procurement and other operational activities are handled by Ames-based AgCertain Operations Group, LLC.

The plant has capacity to refine up to 115 million pounds of oil per year. The plant opened in spring 2017 following a $27 million investment.

Capabilities include sale and contract manufacturing services for Kosher certified USP grade and technical grade glycerin as well as non-GMO and organic vegetable oils. Conventional GMO vegetable oil production is also readily available through the facility’s flexible manufacturing and storage capabilities. Experts in research and development are on staff to provide higher value, smaller volume, specialized refining and custom formulation with traceability, quality assurance and certainty. Partners include the newly-public Calyxt, which inked an agreement last year to refine Calyxt’s high-oleic soybean oil, an advancement that allows Calyxt to produce food-grade high-oleic soybean oil as the Company’s first product.

The KemX backstory

KemX was built around the processing of crude glycerin into food and pharmaceutical grade glycerine, glycerine, that is, derived from the biodiesel industry. The KemX plant was built to be the second largest in North America. At the time the company launched, the company’s founders tipped plans to build a 10,000-liter fermentation facility that will use the purified glycerin as a raw material to produce seed coatings and high value chemicals.

The AgCertain backstory

Most know Dan Oh from his long service as Renewable Energy Group’s long-time CEO. When Dan came to REG, they had one plant and were one mighty interesting and promising group; when he departed, they had 15 and were the unquestioned industry volume leader.

So, if you’re planning to bet that AgCertain is going to stay with just the one project, let me dissuade you before you lose some hard-earned moolah.

It’s not only in Oh’s DNA to grow, grow, grow, but the company described the KemX plant as “Our first major investment” and noted that the plant is “focused on glycerin and vegetable oils, both building block molecules that support a broad array of food, agricultural and bio-based outcomes”. So, expect diversification may well become part of the story, either in the customer base as the industry itself diversifies its targets or, who knows perhaps follow on acquisitions by the company itself.

Because the vision is clearly facilities, plural, and technologies, plural, too. As Oh sketched out the vision, “AgCertain was built to produce, market and deliver high quality, value-added, agriculturally-derived products and services. Over time we plan to operate multi-technology, integrated production facilities that deliver through environmentally friendly, bio-based operations. We will serve and operate within industries where higher value, lower volume, traced and verified supply chains truly matter.”

Why start with this one, why here?

As Oh phrased it, “As part of the Cultivation Corridor, central Iowa is an ideal place to build and grow AgCertain due to available talent, a growing complex of production expertise, intellectual property, commercial experience, and an ever-evolving agricultural base.”

We’d also point out that probably the numbers looked pretty good. I don’t recall any biodiesel or renewable diesel acquisitions during Oh’s reign at REG that smacked of anything less than “a good deal all around”.

Where it might go

Note the comment about higher value, lower volume, traced and verified supply chains” that AgCertain is pointing to. Therein lies the key, in two parts.

Part one, the higher value part. Think of those higher-value chemicals from the fermentation strategy.

And, let’s also aim the laser pointer at “traced and verified supply chains.” Oh and team are clearly betting that the markets are growing for premium oils with traceable attributes such as non-GMO, kosher, and so forth. After all, softgel tablets are often made with gelatin combined with glycerine, just to mention one application where consumers get educated before they put stuff in their mouths.

Think of that transparency ss a value-added service, where customers pay a little bit more for a certainty that allows them to bring high-value attributes to the front of the label where higher value is created with customers. This may be one of those iceberg tips with a lot more to the story going forward. We’ll be tracking that in weeks and months to come.

The stakeholders

Two additional investors join AgCertain and are providing their capital, talent and experience: Midwest Growth Partners led by John Mickelson (based in Iowa, an investor in growth-oriented companies with a special focus in food and agricultural spaces) and 5K PCC Holdings, LLC led by Mike Kemery. 5K PCC Holdings is the sole prior KemX Global equity investor continuing with AgCertain. Both John Mickelson and Mike Kemery have joined the AgCertain Board of Directors.

Also providing financial services for AgCertain are Bank Iowa, Community State Bank, GNB Bank and Peoples Bank. Bank Iowa is providing a line-of-credit to support commercial operations and the other banks are providing long-term financing in support of AgCertain Boone’s production facility.

Reaction from the stakeholders

Mike Kemery, 5K PCC: “As our customers demanded more and we planned to meet the needs of current and emerging products, we were excited to sell to AgCertain because of the influx of capital, experience and expansion opportunity. We have searched for the right firm that can give our customers confidence to meet the increasing demand for glycerin, vegetable oil, plus other bio-based products and AgCertain is our first and best choice”

John Mickelson, Midwest Growth Partners: “AgCertain meets all of our leading indicators for investment and with its team we look forward to growing a great company that reinforces and builds upon Iowa’s and the United States’ long tradition of value-added agricultural success” said John Mickelson.

“At Bank Iowa we seek out and support companies who add to Iowa, agriculture and our industrial base. Because AgCertain is focused on food, agricultural and bio-based products right here in Iowa with excellent technology and a framework for growth, we are ready and willing to provide financial services,” said Jim Plagge, President and CEO.

“As financial services providers for AgCertain Boone, LLC, Peoples Bank, Indianola and GNB Bank, Grundy Center are excited to assist AgCertain in bringing a value-added agricultural production facility online. Both banks feel these types of industries are essential for Iowa’s economy,” said Kevin Halterman, Peoples Bank President & CEO.

The Bottom Line

First, Dan’s back. Second, think of this as a first platform transaction. Third, there’s enough in here to begin to guess at the direction — think multiple technologies, close integration, high value products and chasing higher values through transparency that may well be table stakes for selling into premium markets going forward. Food first, but more later.

www.agcertain.com

 

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Oberon Fuels wins nearly $2.9 million grant from CEC for DME production

Biofuels Digest - Mon, 07/01/2019 - 6:34pm

In California, Oberon Fuels, a producer of clean-burning dimethyl ether (DME) transportation fuel, has been officially awarded a grant for $2,876,139 from the California Energy Commission (CEC) for a first-of-its-kind, multi-phase project to produce the first renewable dimethyl ether (rDME), a clean-burning, ultra-low-carbon transportation fuel, in the U.S. The CEC formally approved the award at its monthly Business Meeting yesterday in Sacramento.

This project unlocks the near- and medium-term decarbonization benefits of rDME, an economical fuel and key step in the development of a California-based, renewable hydrogen (rH2) pathway to zero-emission mobility.

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Global Ethanol Summit launched for October in hopes of boosting consumption

Biofuels Digest - Mon, 07/01/2019 - 6:33pm

In Washington, with the goal of engaging a broad array of global ethanol leaders about the benefits of expanding global ethanol use, the U.S. Grains Council (USGC), Growth Energy and the Renewable Fuels Association (RFA) announce registration is open for the first-ever Global Ethanol Summit (GES), scheduled for Oct. 13-15, 2019, in Washington, D.C.

Interested domestic ethanol industry leaders and other members of the ethanol value chain can register for the event at www.grains.org/event/ges. More than 250 ministerial-level officials and senior-level industry leaders, ethanol producers and refiners from more than 40 countries have been invited to attend.

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Mercosur-EU agreement sees 1 billion liters of additional ethanol quota confirmed

Biofuels Digest - Mon, 07/01/2019 - 6:30pm

In Argentina, the Clarin newspaper reports that the trade deal agreed between the four Mercosur countries and the European Union last week maintains the 1 billion liters of additional ethanol market access discussed in earlier offers, specifically 450,000 metric tons of duty-free ethanol from chemical use beginning as soon as the deal comes into effect and another 200,000 tons for any use, including fuel, that will come in over five years. All of the parliaments in all of the countries first have to ratify the deal before comes into effect.

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REG launches new website chock full of resources on biofuels

Biofuels Digest - Mon, 07/01/2019 - 6:28pm

In Iowa, Renewable Energy Group has launched a new websiteregi.com, that includes hundreds of resources about cleaner fuels like biodiesel and renewable diesel, offering a wealth of information to people wanting to learn more about emission-cutting fuels and the nation’s largest biodiesel producer. 

The website is intended to serve a wide variety of visitors, including the general public, customers, investors and potential employees. They can learn the basics of different fuels, get technical information about REG products, make purchase inquiries, search for jobs and more. 

 The website also features a resource center that is full of white papers, case studies, tips, articles and information for the news media. This library serves as a centralized location for visitors to learn about the environmental, performance, and financial benefits of biodiesel, renewable diesel, and other fuels from an authoritative source in the industry.

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Coleman Oil settles with Washington DOE over 2017 biodiesel spill

Biofuels Digest - Mon, 07/01/2019 - 6:26pm

In Washington state, Lewiston, Idaho-based Coleman Oil has agreed to settle a $189,000 fine for spilling approximately 3,840 gallons of biodiesel into the Columbia River from its Wenatchee bulk oil plant in 2017.

Under the terms of the settlement with the Washington Department of Ecology, the penalty will be reduced to $170,000, if the company makes a cash payment of $65,000 to be used for habitat restoration efforts. To satisfy the remaining $105,000, Coleman Oil, within two years, must complete facility upgrades at its operations in Pateros and Dayton and implement all-staff training. The company must also incur no spills of 25 gallons or more for five years.

An investigation found the fuel had leaked for three months from a corroded underground pipe to soil and groundwater and then seeped into the Columbia River. Since that time, the company has stopped the spill, removed the contamination, and decommissioned the facility. There were no observable impacts to wildlife from the spill.

The facility upgrades include adding leak-detection equipment and upgrading to double-walled line systems. The training must cover job duties at their 18 facilities required by U.S. Environmental Protection spill prevention plans and information about the Clean Water Act. 

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